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Indonesian Government System Before and After Amendment

Kamis, 08 November 2012

Based on the system of government Indonesia before the Amended 1945 Constitution.
The system of government is contained in the description of the 1945 Constitution on 7 key principal system of government. That is:
• Indonesia is a state based on law (rechtsstaat)• Constitutional System.• The highest authority in the hands of the Assembly• The President is the supreme organizer of the State government under MPR.• The President is not accountable to Parliament.• Minister of State is a presidential aide, and is not responsible for the Parliament.• Head of State power is not infinite.
Based on seven key principal, the system of government of Indonesia according to the 1945 adopted a presidential system of government.The system of government is run during the New Order under the leadership of President Suharto.The hallmark of the presidential system of government is a tremendous power in the presidency.

At the time of this system of government, based on the 1945 Constitution, the president's powers are as follows:
• Holders of legislative power.• Holders of power as the head of government.• Holders of power as the head of state.• Supreme Commander of the military.• The right to appoint and appoint the members of the Assembly of the regional representatives or class.• The right to appoint ministers and state officials.• The right to declare war, make peace, and treaties with other countries.• The right to appoint ambassadors and receive ambassadors from other countries.• Eligible to give the mat, service marks, and others - another sign of honor.• The right to grant clemency, amnesty, abolition and rehabilitation.
Negative impacts that occur from a presidential system of government that is is as follows:
• There was a concentration of state power in one institution, namely the president.• The role of oversight and representative parliament weaker.• Officials - State officials are appointed loyal and tend to be utilized to support the continuity of the president's powers.• The policy is likely to benefit the people - those close to the president.• Create a service learning behavior.• There was a personification of the president considered the State.• People made increasingly powerless, and subject to the president.
The positive effect that occurs from a presidential system of government that is is as follows:
• The President can control the entire government administration.• The President was able to create a compact and solid governance.• The government system is more stable, not easily fall or change.• Conflict and conflict between state officials can be avoided.
Indonesia entered the reform era. Where the Indonesian nation wants and is determined to create a system of democratic governance. Therefore the need to establish the rule of the constitution (constitutional). Characterized as follows:• A limitation of executive power.• Guarantees of rights - human rights and citizens.
II. Based on the system of government Indonesia after the 1945 Amended.
Principal - the principal system of government is as follows:

• The state of unity with the principle of autonomy. The territory was divided into several provinces.• The form of government is a Republic.• The system of government is presidential.• The President is the head of state and head of government.• Cabinet or a minister appointed by the president and is responsible to the president.• Parliament consists of two (bicameral), the DPR and DPD.• Judicial power is run by the supreme court and judicial bodies underneath.
The system of government is largely still adheres sitem presidential. This is evident with the president as head of state and head of government. The president also is outside the direct control of the House and is not responsible for the parliament.
Several variations of the presidential system of government in Indonesia is as follows:
• President at any time - can be dismissed the Assembly on the proposal and consideration of the House.• President to appoint State officials need consideration and / or approval of Parliament.• President to issue specific policies need to be considered and / or approved by Parliament.• Parliament given greater powers in terms of shaping legislation - legislation and the right budget (budget).
Thus, no changes - new changes in the Indonesian system. It is intended to improve the old presidential system. The new changes, such as the direct election of the president, bicameral systems, checks and balances, and giving greater powers to the parliament to conduct oversight and budgetary functions.

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