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Form Designation, Roots and Logarithms

Selasa, 23 Oktober 2012 0 komentar

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History of Indonesian Dangdut music

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Dangdut is one of the musical genre that developed in Indonesia. This musical form rooted in the Malay music in the 1940s. In the evolution to contemporary forms are now entering the influence of Indian music elements (mainly from the use of tabla) and Arabic (on crooked and harmonization).
Changes in Indonesia's political currents at the end of the 1960s the influence of western music opens strong with the inclusion of the use of electric guitars and also a form of marketing. Since the 1970's dangdut be said to have matured in a contemporary form. In popular music, dangdut very open to influences of other musical forms, ranging from keroncong, style, gamelan, harp, rock, pop, and even house music.
The mention of the name "dangdut" is onomatopoeic of the sound of tabla game (in the world of drum called dangdut only) and is dominated by the distinctive sound of sword and ndut. The name is actually a cynical title in an article in the early 1970s to form malay music is very popular among the working class at that time.
Here are the names of several prominent singer and songwriter popular dangdut is divided into three chronological groups, in accordance with the development of dangdut music:
Pre-1970Husein BawafieMunif BahaswanEllyaM. MashabiJohana SatarHasnah TaharThe 1970'sA. RafiqRhoma IramaElvy SukaesihMansyur S.Mukhsin AlatasHerlina EffendiReynold PanggabeanCamelia MalikIda LailaAfter the 1970'sVera VettyNur HalimahHamdan ATTMeggy ZakariaIis DahliaItje TresnawatyEvi TamalaIkke NurjanahKristinaCici ParamidaDewi PersikInul
Indonesian dangdut in contemporary culture
By Rhoma Irama, dangdut used as a preaching tool, which is clearly visible from the lyrics of his songs, and declared by him. This has become one of the major triggers of cultural polemics in Indonesia in 2003 due to stage protest against the style of dangdut singer from East Java, Inul, with rocking ngebor labeled decadent and "moral damage".
Much earlier, dangdut has also been invited debate and ended with a ban on the celebration stage dangdut Sekaten in Yogyakarta. The debate emerged again due to stage style singer (female) was considered too "open" and taste, so it does not fit with the mission Sekaten as a religious celebration.
Dangdut was agreed many people as the music that carries the aspirations of lower-class society with all its simplicity and kelugasannya. Distinctive feature is reflected in the lyrics and song structure. The sensational stage style is inseparable from exhaustion.
Stage political campaigns are also not left behind utilizing dangdut popularity to attract the masses. Dangdut issue as a political tool also burst when Basofi Sudirman, at the time as Golkar functionaries, singing dangdut songs.
Although dangdut associated with a poor lower class people, not just a favored means dangdut underclass. In any event entertainment, dangdut certainly participate enliven the situation. Dangdut stage can easily be found in many places. Entertainment venues and special disco play dangdut songs found in many large cities. Radio stations broadcast claiming to be "radio dangdut" is also easily found in many cities.
Interaction with other music
Dangdut very elastic in the face and affect other forms of music. Western songs popular in the 1960's and 1970's many of the didangdutkan. Harp music genres and kasidah slowly drifting in the current way of dangdut music. The same thing happened to the music of Cirebon Tarling so that still exists today is a form thereof: tarlingdut.
Rock, pop, disco, house bound with both the music dangdut. Similarly, what happened to the music area like jaipongan, gamelan, Tarling, keroncong, Java style (known as a musical form called congdut tasters, with characters Didi Kempot), or Zapin.
Easily dangdut receiving element 'foreign' making it vulnerable to other forms of piracy, as is the case for the songs of Bollywood-style movie and latin songs. Coffee Dangdut, for example, is "pirated" a popular song from Venezuela.
Building songs
Despite dangdut songs can accept a variety of other musical elements easily, building most of the songs dangdut very conservative, mostly composed of units of eight bars 4/4. Rarely found dangdut songs with time signatures 3/4, except for the songs during Melayu Deli (example: Birds Nuri). Dangdut songs also poor improvisation, both melody and harmony. As a dance accompanist music, dangdut rely tabla beats and syncope.
Intro can be vocal without accompaniment or a game flute, the rest is guitar or mandolin. The length can be up to eight-bar intro.
The initial part is composed of eight bars, with or without repetition. If there is a repetition, can be interrupted by a pause the game line. This section is usually lyrical introduction to the song, the situation faced by the singer.
Standard dangdut song has no chorus, but has a second part to building a different melody with the first part. Before entering the second part there are usually two eight-bar breaks without lyrics. The second part is usually all of two times eight bars with interrupted single line breaks without lyrics. At the end of the second part is sometimes found along the four-bar coda. The second part contains the lyrics are usually a consequence of the situation described first part of the singer's actions taken to address the situation.
After the second, repeated full song from beginning to end. Dangdut song ends in a repeat of the first part. Rarely dangdut song ends with a fade away.

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GAMES AND SPORTS (badminton)

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A. Basic Technique Badminton Games1. Engineering Holding RacketGrip (handle) badminton racket can be divided into two parts, the top and bottom.The function of both types were distinguished according punch handle generated. Racket grip the top will result in a blow that is smooth and soft, while the bottom of the handle of the racquet will be hard to bring off.In mechanics, racquet grip at the top will produce a small force, it should be, the handle is used to play a game in front of the net and the short service in doubles play, while at the bottom of the handle of the racket can be more free to all sorts of punches.Error in holding the racket will tend to form this type of game and also be difficult to repair. For that reason, early learning, recognition, function handle, and how to hold a badminton racket worth noting.Technique or how to hold the racket can be divided into four types, namely:a. How forehand grip1. How doa. Put your racket on the floor on his side, then hold by way of the hand between the thumb with the index finger attaches to the surface of a narrow stalk!b. Racket held without changed, which need to be considered here is the location of the thumb tip is not exceeded and no less than the index finger.Note the grip image below!
2. Advantages and disadvantagesJudging from the position of the hands, how forehand grip gives an advantage in some respects, namely:a. Guaranteed safe, because the racket is held with the entire palm of the hand, grip was strong and not easily separated.b. Make it easy for the player to hit a ball that comes to the right agency.c. Players do not need twisting the handle on the ball when receiving short.Weakness forehand grip following ways:a. When doing a backhand requires wrist strength and extraordinary shoulder joints, and requires special training.b. Opponents easy to anticipate because the direction of the shot is easily seen or read your opponent.
b. How backhand grip1. How doBackhand grip is a continuation of the grip forehand grip, the grip from forehand to backhand grip can be switched by rotating the racket a quarter turn to the left, but do not like the thumb position on the forehand but rather close to the leaf racket or a way to hold it is to cross the road menempelan thumb on the surface of the racket shaft wide.Note the grip image below!
2. Advantages and disadvantagesa. The advantage is the result of blows grip hard to guess, because the ball very hard, too controlled.b. Klemahan grip is difficulty returning players smash hit that comes towards the right body or the right towards the body.c. How to handle the combination (combination grip)Combination grip or mixed grip is a way of holding the racket with racket handle changing the way according to the arrival of the ball and kind of blows.The handle of this mixture is a combination of forehand to backhand. By way of this combination, the player will have a complete and hard punches analyzed weaknesses.Changes in the way the handle is not hard to do from the backhand grip by sliding the thumb slightly to the left.How to hold the mixture is almost the same way as the forehand, but the racket is tilted and the handle is held like a pda when shaking hands.Look at the picture show below!
2. Perform Engineering ServicesThe blow is a blow prefix or service offerings pertawa ball game as starters. Service is a crucial blow in the early grades, because only players who perform service to obtain the number / value.Good service is true service and can kill opponents or at least can disrupt your opponent's position or position.a. Service (short service)Service was conducted at a double play.How to do:1. Stand with your left foot in front or both legs opened selbar shoulder.2. Left hand holding the ball in front of the body slightly downward, while knan hand holding the racket in front of the body (for right-handed players)3. Swing the racket from the back to the front so that the ball had been removed from his left hand to cross or over the net.4. In doing so it should be a short service sought to be running the ball as close as possible to the height of the net, so it will be difficult for the opponent to turn the ball.Look at the picture show below!
b. High service (lob service)This service is typically used in a single game. The resulting ball high up near the line of rear k and k plummeted straight down. Therefore, blow lob service mmbutuhkan lot of energy.How to do:1. Stand with your left foot forward and right foot back a bit wide.2. Swing your arms holding ralet from back to front, accompanied by a hard blow, so that at the end of the movement of the punch, the racket is above the body.3. Swing the racket with the weight transfer from back to front should be done optimally.4. Immediately lower left hand back the ball off of the hand.Look at the picture show below!
3. Technique Punches Lob / HighThe blow should be bounced back danjauh opponent game area, for that we need a substantial tnaga.Blow lob to do, either from the ground or from overhead. Blow lob a blow that is essential for the defense and attack patterns.Look at the picture show below!
4. Technique Punches Drive (Horizontal)Punch punch drive is commonly used to suppress opponents and to get the balls to rebound, so it could attack Sidak. The way to do that is to take and hit the ball from the side body at waist height. The blow drives can be done with a forehand or backhand.
Look at the picture show below!Puikulan ball with the backhand.
Forehand at his sides.
5. Smash Punch TechniqueSmash punch is done with a powerful punch and down the field toward the opponent.This punch should come fast and hard, and a dip, so it can be deadly opponent. This step is to get the value (number) or move the ball (shuttlecock).
Look at the picture show below!
6. Techniques Hitting Net ShortBlows the net is a pretty tough blow in a game of badminton, as many require rigor with emotion or feeling.Some of the principles that should be considered in net games are:a. The ball must be taken from the top or as high as possible,b. Bounce the ball should be as low as possible to the net,c. The fall of the ball should be as close possible to the netLook at the picture show below!
B. Field and Game Equipment Badmintonbefore we know the shape playing field and equipment for playing badminton.1. Field BadmintonLength: 13, 40 metersWidth: 6, 10 metersThick lines: 3, 8 cmThe distance between the net and the lines: 1.98Short serviceNext swath width: 46 cmRear swath width: 78 cm
2. Net or JalaMesh width = 20 x 20 mmNet width = 0.76 metersNet length = 6.10 metersBand width = 5 cmThe length of the rope stretch = 10 metersHigh net = 1.55 meters
3. RacketHeavy rackets = 100 - 130 grams
4. Ball or shuttlecockThe number of feathers = 14-16 sheetsLong hair = 54-64 mmThe center line head = 15-28 mmHeavy ball = 4.73 to 5.50 gram
C. How to Play Badminton GamesThis game can be done by the player's son and daughter are comprised of:1. Single gameSingle game due to a (single) game which is what an opponent one.In a single game, a player must know the styles or types of game opponent. There are three styles of play that often arise:a. Style game that prioritizes the elements or factors of strength and speed.b. Style game mengutamakanb factor durability and tenacity,c. Style game mngutamakan teknbik factor and feinting2. Double gameDouble game (double) consists of men's doubles, doubles daughter, and mixed doubles.In doubles play, there are three systems that are often used:a. Systems side by sideb. System front and rearc. Alternating system, the combination of the first and second systemAdvantages systems side by side, namely:a. Territory each player looks or looks and bounded by lines clear so avoid collisions between players.b. Easy to learnc. Is a strong defense and penetrated hard by the opponent's attackThe klmahan system side by side are:a. Couple clever opponents will push a weakb. In this formation can not attack effectivelyImage formation side by side:
For the system front and back is typically done when:a. One member of the pair is stronger than the other, then the weak players in front, while the more powerful rear oversee the entire field.b. Couples wanting constantly blows attacks.Advantages front and rear systems are:a. Couple clever opponents will push a weakb. In this formation can not attack effectivelyImage formation side by side:
For the system front and back is typically done when:a. One member of the pair is stronger than the other, then the weak players in front, while the more powerful rear oversee the entire field.b. Couples wanting constantly blows attacks.Advantages front and rear systems are:a. Is a good formation to attack,b. Allows for mnyembunyikan weak players near the net.While the weakness of the system front and rear are:Opponent can attack defenders from the right and left nearly impossible for defenders to master all the punch lines launched by opponents to the right or left side.Image formation front and rear!
3. How to Calculate Points (Figures)First, the value for a son 15 and daughter 11 in each set, while the men's doubles and a daughter 15 in each set. When Inui known rally point system with a value of 21 for each set.When notch 19-19 going deuce, then plus 3 points for the winner.
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